Monarchianism

For they who affirm that the Son is the Father, are proved neither to have become acquainted with the Father, nor to know that the Father of the universe has a Son; who also, being the first-begotten Word of God, is even God. And of old He appeared in the shape of fire and in the likeness of an angel to Moses and to the other prophets; but now in the times of your reign, having, as we before said, become Man by a virgin, according to the counsel of the Father, for the salvation of those who believe on Him. Justin Martyr (A.D. 160) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.1 pg.184

In various ways has the devil rivaled and resisted the truth. Sometimes his aim has been to destroy the truth by defending it… He says that the Father Himself came down into the Virgin, was Himself born of her, Himself suffered, indeed was Himself Jesus Christ. Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg. 597

This heresy (Monarchianism), which supposes itself to possess the pure truth, in thinking that one cannot believe in One Only God in any other way than by saying that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are the very selfsame Person. Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg. 598

They are constantly throwing out against us that we are preachers of two gods and three gods, while they take to themselves pre-eminently the credit of being worshippers of the One God… We, say they, maintain the Monarchy. As for myself, however, if I have gleaned any knowledge of either language, I am sure that monarkia (or Monarchy) has no other meaning than single and individual rule; but for all that, this monarchy does not, because it is the government of one, preclude him whose government it is, either from having a son… If, moreover, there be a son belonging to him whose monarchy it is, it does not forthwith become divided and cease to be a monarchy, if the son also be taken as a sharer in it. Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg. 599

We have been already able to show that the Father and the Son are two separate Persons, not only by the mention of their separate names as Father and the Son, but also by the fact that He who delivered up the kingdom, and He to whom it is delivered up – and in like manner, He who subjected (all things), and He to whom they were subjected – must necessarily be two different Beings. Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg. 600

If the number of the Trinity also offends you, as if it were not connected in the simple Unity, I ask you how it is possible for a Being who is merely and absolutely One and Singular, to speak in plural phrase, saying, “Let us make man in our own image, and after our own likeness;” whereas He ought to have said, “Let me make man in my own image, and after my own likeness,” Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg.606

“I and my Father are one;” and, “He that has seen me has seen the Father; and I am in the Father, and the Father in me.” They would have the entire revelation of both Testaments yield to these three passages, whereas the only proper course is to understand the few statements in the light of the many. But in their contention they only act on the principle of all heretics. For, inasmuch as only a few testimonies are to be found (making for them) in the general mass, they set off the few against the many, and assume the later against the earlier. Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg.615

And now it may be seen in what sense it was said, “He that has seen me has seen the Father,” even in the same in which it was said in a previous passage, “I and my Father are one.” “If you had known me, you would have known the Father also.” For in all these passages He had shown Himself to be the Father’s Commissioner, through whose agency even the Father could be seen in His works, and heard in His words. Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg. 620

…”and say to them, I ascend to my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God.” Now, does this mean, I ascend as the Father to the Father, and as God to God? Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg.621

He commands them to baptize into the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, not into a unipersonal God. And indeed it is not once only, but three times, that we are immersed into the Three Persons, at each several mention of Their names. Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg. 623

Nay, but you do blaspheme; because you allege not only that the Father died, but that He died the death of the cross… since, however, you convert Christ into the Father, you are chargeable with blasphemy against the Father. Tertullian (A.D. 198) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 pg. 626

There has appeared one, Noetus by name, and by birth a native of Smyrna. This person introduced a heresy from the tenets of Heraclitus… The school of these heretics during the succession of such bishops, continued to acquire strength and augmentation, from the fact that Zephyrinus and Callistus helped them to prevail. Never at any time, however, have we been guilty of collusion with them; but we have frequently offered them opposition, and have refuted them, and have forced them reluctantly to acknowledge the truth. Hippolytus (A.D. 225) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.5 pg. 125

Now, that Noetus affirms that the Son and Father are the same, no one is ignorant. But he makes his statement thus: “When indeed, then, the Father had not been born, He yet was justly styled Father; and when it pleased Him to undergo generation, having been begotten, He Himself became His own Son, not another’s.” For in this manner he thinks to establish the sovereignty of God, alleging that Father and Son, so called, are one and the same (substance), not one individual produced from a different one, but Himself from Himself; and that He is styled by name Father and Son, according to vicissitude of times…That this person suffered by being fastened to the tree, and that He commended His spirit unto Himself, having died to appearance, and not being (in reality) dead. And He raised Himself up the third day, after having been interred in a sepulcher, and wounded with a spear, and perforated with nails. Hippolytus (A.D. 225) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.5 pg. 127-128

Now Callistus brought forward Zephyrinus himself, and induced him publicly to avow the following sentiments… And we, becoming aware of his sentiments, did not give place to him, but reproved and withstood him for the truth’s sake. And he hurried headlong into folly, from the fact that all consented to his hypocrisy – we, however, did not do so. Hippolytus (A.D. 225) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.5 pg.128

Callistus alleges that the Logos Himself is Son, and that Himself is Father; and that though denominated by a different title, yet that in reality He is one indivisible spirit. And he maintains that the Father is not one person and the Son another. Hippolytus (A.D. 225) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.5 pg.130

Some others are secretly introducing another doctrine, who have become disciples of one Noetus, who was a native of Smyrna, (and) lived not very long ago… When the blessed presbyters heard this they summoned him before the church and examined him… But he stood out against them, saying, “What evil, then, am I doing in glorifying Christ?” And the presbyters replied to him, “We too know in truth one God; we know Christ; we know that the Son suffered even as He suffered, and died even as He died, and rose again on the third day, and is at the right hand of the Father, and comes to judge the living and the dead. And these things which we have learned we allege.” Then, after examining him, they expelled him from the Church. And he was carried to such a pitch of pride, that he established a sect. …Now they seek to exhibit the foundation for their dogma by citing the word in the law, “I am the God of your fathers: you shall have no other gods beside me;” and again in another passage, “I am the first,” He said, “and the last; and beside me there is none other.” Thus they say they prove that God is one. And then
they answer in this manner: “If therefore I acknowledge Christ to be God, He is the Father Himself, if He is indeed God; and Christ suffered, being Himself God; and consequently the Father suffered, for He was the Father Himself.” But the case stands not thus; for the Scriptures do not set forth the matter in this manner. Hippolytus (A.D. 225) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.5 pg. 224

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